General Orders Head Quarters,TO THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESSHead Quarters, Head Quarters, New York, June 20, 1776 - History

General Orders Head Quarters,TO THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESSHead Quarters, Head Quarters, New York, June 20, 1776 - History

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Head Quarters Morristown,May 8, 1777
SIR: I am now to acknowledge the receipt of your Favours of the 14th and 18th. instant, and the interesting resolves contained in them, with which I have been honored.

The several matters recommended to my attention, shall be particularly regarded, and the directions of Congress, and your requests complied with, in every instance, as far as is in my power.

The Institution of a War Office is certainly an Event of great importance, and in all probability will be recorded as such in the Historic Page. The benefits derived from it, I flatter myself will be considerable tho' the plan, upon which it is first formed may not be entirely perfect. This like other great Works in its first Edition, may not be entirely free from Error. Time will discover its Defects and experience suggest the Remedy, and such further Improvements as may bc necessary; but it was right to give it a Beginning.

The Recommendation to the Convention of New York for restraining and punishing disaffected Persons, I am hopeful will be attended with salutary consequences, and the prohibition against exporting Provisions appears to have been a measure founded in sound Policy, lest proper supplies should be wanted wherewith to subsist our Armies.

I have transmitted General Schuyler, the resolves about the Indians, and the others on which he is to act, and have requested his strict attention and exertions in order to their being carried into Execution with all possible Dispatch.

I note your request respecting Mr. Hancock; he shall have such Directions as may be necessary for conducting his Office and I am happy he will have so early a remittance for paying the Troops in his Department.

The Silver and Paper Money designed for Canada will be highly serviceable, and I hope will be the means of reestablishing our Credit thcrc in some degree with the Canadians, and also encourage our Men, who have complained in this Instance; when it arrives, I will send it forward under a proper Guard.

I have communicated to General Gates the Resolve of Congress for him to repair to Canada, and directed him to view Point au Fere, that a Fortress may be erected if he shall judge it necessary; he is preparing for his command and in a few days will take his Departure for it: I would, fain hope his arrival there will give our Affairs, a complexion different from what they have worn for a long Thllc past, urld that many essential genefits will result from it.

The kind attention Congress have strewn to afford the Commander in Chief here every assistance, by resolving that recommendatory Letters be written to the conventions of New Jersey, New York and the Assembly of Connecticut, to Authorize him to call in the militias in cases of exigency, claims my thanliLul acknowledgments and I trust, if carried into execution, will produce many advantages, in case It may be expedient to call in early reinforcements; the delays Incident to the ordinary mode may frequently render their aid too late and prove exceedingly Injurious.

I this Evening received Intelligence of the 19th. instt. from Captn. Pond of the Armed Sloop Schuyler, of his having taken, about ~5o miles from this on the South side of Long Island, a Ship and a Sloop bound to Sandy Hook: The Ship from Glasgow with a Company of the 22d Regiment, had been taken before by one of C;ommodore Hopkins Fleet, who took the Soldiers out and ordered her to Rhode Island, after which she was retaken by the Cerberus and put under the convoy of the Sloop. As Captain Pond informs, there were five Commissioned Officers, Two Ladies and four Privates on board; they are not yet arrived at Head Quarters; inclosed is an Invoice of what they have on Board.

General Wooster having expressed an inclination and wish to wait on Congress, I have given him permission, not having any occasion for him here. he sets out this morning.

I have been up to view the grounds about Kings Bridge, and find them to admit of many Places well calculated for defence, and esteeming it a Pass of the utmost importance have ordered Works to be laid out and shall direct part of the two Battalions from Pennsylvania, to set about the erection immediately, and will add to their Numbers several of the Militia, when they come, in to expedite them with all possible Dispatch; their consequences, as they will keep open the Communication with the Country, requires the most speedy completion of them. I have the Honor to be &c..

Manuscript/Mixed Material George Washington, July 12, 1776, General Orders

General Spencers Brigade, instead of repairing to their Alarm post, to hold themselves in readiness to march to morrow morning at four O'Clock. The Brigadier General will attend at Head Quarters, this evening for orders which he will deliver on the parade, to morrow morning to the brigade.

As the weather is very warm, there will be the greatest danger of the Troops growing unhealthy, unless both officers and men are attentive to cleanliness, in their persons and quarters, The officers are required to visit the men frequently in their quarters to impress on them the necessity of frequently changing their linnen, cleaning their persons, and wherever it can be avoided not to cook their victuals in the same room where they sleep. If any of the officers apprehend themselves crowded in their quarters they are to represent it to the Barrack Master who is ordered to accommodate them in such a manner as to be most conducive to health and convenience. The good of the service, the comfort of the men, and the merit of the officers will be so much advanced, by keeping the troops as neat and clean as possible, that the General hopes that there will be an emulation upon this head and as a scrutiny will soon be made, those who shall be found negligent will be punished, and the deserving rewarded.

General Orders Head Quarters,TO THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESSHead Quarters, Head Quarters, New York, June 20, 1776 - History

George Washington's Personal Flag

George Washington's Headquarters Flag 1775

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Commander In Chief Flag #H233 $49.00 3x5' acid dyed Nylon

On March 11, 1776 The Continental Congress authorized organized a bodyguard and personal escort unit to Gen. George Washington. Congress frowned on such titles as "His Excellency's Guard" and "Washington's Life Guard" because they seemed to mirror the British titles of nobility which were being rejected as part of the revolutionary mindset. In April 1777 the Second Continental Congress warned that the use of such monikers in official communications was prohibited but their usage persisted.

Today the unit is known as The Commander-in-Chief's Guard, shortened to the CINC Guard, and officially titled Company A, 4th Battalion, 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment. Company A claims direct lineage from the unit created in 1776. It is a special ceremonial unit that appears in Revolutionary War uniforms at retirement ceremonies, state visits and presidential inaugurations. Find them on the Facebook page titled "Commander in Chief's Guard"

This is the flag used by the unit today

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George Washington became president on April 30, 1789. Rhode Island did not join The Union until May 29, 1790. If anyone notices your flag is missing a star, maybe you can tell them your flag represents the time when we were a nation of only twelve states!

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Washington's Life Guard Flag #H143 $49.00, 3x5' Dyed Nylon with heading and grommets

Officially called The Commander-in-Chief's Guard, the unit was authorized in 1776 and disbanded 1783 right here in Newburgh, NY. At its peak it had about 250 men whose function was to protect The General as well as the money, baggage and important papers of his command. It was also tasked with provisioning his HQ. The guard was with him in all of his battles and sometimes was sent into combat. It was an honor to belong to this volunteer unit and care was taken to include men from all 13 states. There was a height requirement of 5'8" to 5'10". Men were to be "sober, intelligent, and reliable", "honest, clean, neat and spruce," even "handsome, well made and of good behavior." These were clearly a squared away bunch of guys. No rookies were allowed. There was a requirement that candidates be already "drilled". The unit's motto, "Conquer or Die" adorns the flag. Lady Liberty passes a flag to a guard member.

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3x5' Nylon heading and grommets

Background: Washington anticipated that the British would try to take New York and he had moved his army there. He was correct. On June 29th the British fleet was sighted. Within a week there were 130 ships anchored off Staten Island and on July 2nd they landed troops there. For almost two months
ships continued to arrive until they finally totaled 400. 32,000 troops eventually landed.

On August 27, 1776, the largest battle of the Revolution began. Variously called the Battle of Long Island or the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, it was the first battle fought
by the Untied States Army on behalf of the now independent United States of America. If the Royal Navy is included, Washington's little army of 10,000 largely green troops faced a force of 40,000 British and Hessians. He also had no navy.

The Americans were flanked, attacked from the rear and routed. During the action, 250 Marylanders stayed behind and attacked the British six times in order to buy time for their comrades in arms to escape across a marsh. The Marylanders were annihilated. Washington's army was left huddled and dug in on the Brooklyn shore- the water at their back and the British in their front. With a dramatic and dangerous night time evacuation, Washington's army lived to fight another day. The wind cooperated by preventing the British fleet from sailing up the East river to surround the Americans. Towards dawn, a sudden and heavy fog set in to conceal the completion of the evacuation. The British were stunned to find the Americans had escaped to Manhattan.

As he to prepared his troops for what was to come, George Washington called on them to
do their duty, think of posterity- that is you and me- keep their powder dry, remain disciplined and to sleep with their weapons.

George Washington, General Orders
Head Quarters, New York, July 2, 1776
"The time is now near at hand which must probably determine, whether Americans are to be, Freemen,
or Slaves whether they are to have any property they can call their own whether their Houses, and
Farms, are to be pillaged and destroyed, and they consigned to a State of Wretchedness from which no
human efforts will probably deliver them. The fate of unborn Millions will now depend, under God, on
the Courage and Conduct of this army--Our cruel and unrelenting Enemy leaves us no choice but a
brave resistance, or the most abject submission this is all we can expect--We have therefore to
resolve to conquer or die: Our own Country's Honor, all call upon us for a vigorous and manly
exertion, and if we now shamefully fail, we shall become infamous to the whole world. Let us
therefore rely upon the goodness of the Cause, and the aid of the supreme Being, in whose hands
Victory is, to animate and encourage us to great and noble Actions--The Eyes of all our Countrymen
are now upon us, and we shall have their blessings, and praises, if happily we are the instruments
of saving them from the Tyranny meditated against them. Let us therefore animate and encourage each
other, and shew the whole world, that a Freeman contending for LIBERTY on his own ground is superior
to any slavish mercenary on earth.

The General recommends to the officers great coolness in time of action, and to the soldiers a
strict attention and obedience with a becoming firmness and spirit.

Any officer, or soldier, or any particular Corps, distinguishing themselves by any acts of bravery,
and courage, will assuredly meet with notice and rewards and on the other hand, those who behave
ill, will as certainly be exposed and punished-- The General being resolved, as well for the Honor
and Safety of the Country, as Army, to shew no favour to such as refuse, or neglect their duty at so
important a crisis.

The General expressly orders that no officer, or soldier, on any pretence whatever, without leave in
writing, from the commanding officer of the regiment, do leave the parade, so as to be out of
drum-call, in case of an alarm, which may be hourly expected--The Regiments are immediately to be
under Arms on their respective parades, and should any be absent they will be severely punished--The
whole Army to be at their Alarm posts completely equipped to morrow, a little before day--

As there is a probability of Rain, the General strongly recommends to the officers, to pay
particular attention, to their Men's arms and ammunition, that neither may be damaged--

'Tis the General's desire that the men lay upon their Arms in their tents and quarters, ready to
turn out at a moments warning, as their is the greatest likelihood of it."

March 15, 1782, The Newburgh Conspiracy

It Happened in Our Town. Mutiny could have shattered the American Revolution. In New Windsor, New York, George Washington, The Father of Our Country, by the sheer persuasion of his person and of his words, saved the cause. He responds to the "Newburgh Addresses"

George Washinton's Newburgh Address A Massachusetts Historical Society Picture Book

The text shown in Italics is taken verbatim.

It should be noted that at the time, Washington's Headquarters, where he lived with his wife and staff, was in Newburgh, NY, some two or three miles away. He delivered his address in New Windsor at the site where The Continental Army that he commanded, consisting of some 5,000 soldiers, had its last encampment.

After Cornwallis surrendered his army at Yorktown, Virginia, the British still had a major force in New York City. Washington positioned his army 60 miles up the Hudson River in our town of New Windsor, New York. This position made him available to protect West Point, the Key to the Continent, and allowed him to keep the British in check while the world waited to see what the peace talks in Europe would bring. What would happen next? Would peace be negotiated? Would the British force in New York march on somewhere else? Would a group of disgruntled officers doom the entire enterprise?

Washington's Headquarters, the New Windsor Cantonment, The Last Encampment of The Continental Army, Knox's Headquarters, and The Edminston House may be visited today

In December 1782, fourteen principal officers of the Continental army in winter quarters at Newburgh, New York, headed by Major-General Henry Knox, signed an Address to the continental Congress entreating it to pay part of the back pay due them and the soldiers, make provision for future payment of the balance, and vote "full pay for a certain number of years, or for a sum in gross, as shall be agreed to by the committee sent with the address," instead of half-pay for life which the Congress had voted in October 1780 to retired officers. The existing provision as to retirement pay had been widely condemned, and the officers presumably supposed that the proposed new arrangement would have the twofold advantage of being less unpopular and by fixing the precise amount of future compensation, of uniting their influence with that of the many other public creditors having claims of specific amounts.

The officers and men had been guaranteed money and benefits by congress. Now they were offering to settle for less than congress had promised them in the hopes that the lesser amount would get more support in light of the many other obligations to which congress had committed itself a half loaf is better than none at all.

The committee referred to in the address-consisting of Major-General Alexander McDougall of New York, Colonel Mathias Ogden of New Jersey, and Lieutenant-Colonel John Brooks of Massachusetts-promptly presented the Address to the Congress, which had been given notice of the affair by letter from Washington to Joseph Jones, one of the Virginia delegates, informing him of the Address, which, had been given notice of the affair by a letter from Washington to Joseph Jones, one of the Virginia delegates, informing him of the Address, which, "tho' unpleasing is just now unavoidable," because of the "variety of discontents" prevailing in the army.

General Washington had warned one of the Virginia delegates to congress that the grievances were a "bummer" but that they could no longer be overlooked given the discontent prevailing within the army.

The Committee found the bankrupt congress willing to do the little it could to meet the requests in the Address except in the matter of pay for retired officers, of whom there would soon be many hundreds more when the approaching peace led to the disbanding or drastic reduction of the army.

The committee found out that congress had no money and would not meet the commitment it had made except in the case of the retiring officer corps, which would grow in ranks due to the outbreak of peace.

. the delegations from the three states which had opposed the original commitment, with the addition of Rhode Island, voted against and thus defeated the proposal, which, under the Articles of Confederation, could be carried only by the affirmative votes of nine states.

But when put to a vote, congress said "no dice."

On receipt of news of this defeat, a group of officers at Newburgh, with Major John Armstrong of Pennsylvania acting as their penman, circulated an anonymous paper calling a meeting of officers to be held at a recently erected building known as "the Newbuilding" at 12 o'clock noon on March 11, 1783. Deeming it wise to permit such a meeting but to regularize it, Washington, on learning of the anonymous call, included in his general orders for the day of March 11 a passage denouncing the proposed "disorderly" meeting but requesting that "the General and Field officers with one officer from each company and a proper representative of the staff of the Army will assemble at 12 o'clock on Saturday next [March 15] at the Newbuilding to hear the report of the Committee of the Army to Congress" and to "devise what further measures ought to be adopted as most rational and best calculated to attain the just and important object in view.

When congress reneged, some army officers bucked the chain of command and army protocol. They called an illegal meeting to plan their next move. Washington diffused the situation by calling his own meeting.

This action scotched the unauthorized meeting on March 11 but, nothing daunted, Armstrong now circulated another anonymous paper, in effect urging the officers to demand instead of to ask for the things they had originally requested, with the addition of an implied threat that if all their demands were not satisfied they would compel the Congress to accede to them.

When Washington took the wind out of their sails, the disgruntled officers upped the ante by threatening to force congress to give them what they wanted. After all, the army had the guns and the power to march on congress! Military coups happen all the time! The army could simply march on congress.

Alarmed by this paper, Washington attended the meeting which he had called for March 15 and there read he famous address here reproduced. ( See below.)

"His Execellency. " wrote Captain Samuel Shaw a few weeks later, "after reading the first paragraph, made a short pause, took out his spectacles, and begged the indulgence of his audience while he put them on, observing at the same time, that he had grown gray in their service, and now found himself growing blind. There was something so natural, so unaffected, in this appeal, as rendered it superior to the most studied oratory it forced its way to the heart, and you might see sensibility moisten every eye. The General, having finished, took leave of the assembly, and the business of the day was conducted in the manner which is related in the [published] account of the proceedings. "

When Washington addressed the tension filled room, (the very building has been reproduced for your visitation), the aged warrior paused after a few words and said as he took out his glasses, "you will forgive me, but I have not only grown gray but also blind in the service of my country." The sight of the venerable leader struggling with his eyesight in the endeavor of persuading his forces to remain loyal to the civilian authority left not a dry eye in the house.

Washington's address was completely successful. The assembled officers adopted resolutions denouncing 'the secret attempts. to collect the officers together in a manner totally subversive of all discipline and good order, " expressing confidence that the Congress would not disband the army without acceding to the officers' original requests (including an acceptable arrangement for "half-pay, or commutation of it"), and requesting Washington to write the President of Congress, "earnestly entreating the more speedy decision of that honorable body." Washington wrote as requested, and Congress promptly responded favorably by voting (nine states to three) that retired officers of any regiment, if a majority so elected, should have full pay for five years instead of half-pay for life.

Washington won over the crowd of officers who soundly rejected the proposal to usurp authority. They urged him to write to congress on their behalf. He did write and won a favorable result.

General Orders Head Quarters,TO THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESSHead Quarters, Head Quarters, New York, June 20, 1776 - History

Head Quarters, New Windsor, Monday, February 18, 1781.

At a Court of enquiry ordered by Major General Heath the 27th. of December 1780 in consequence of an order of His Excellency General Washington the 20th. of the same month "To investigate the conduct of Lieutenant Colonel Antill on the day of his Captivity in August 1777 and to report concerning the same." Colonel Putnam, President. Members: Lieutenant Colonel commandant Sprout, Lieutenant Colonel Badlam, Lieutenant Colonel commdt Brooks, Major J. Porter.

The Court after due consideration of the circumstances Report. "That Lieutenant Colonel Antill appears to have been captured while in the execution of his duty and that he is not Censurable in any part of his conduct but is deserving the Approbation of every good officer."

Head Quarters, New Windsor, Sunday, February 18, 1781.

Worthy Sir April 11th 1781 Fish Kill

In consequence of your last letter to me about the Provoost, I directed a survey to be made and inclose you Maj: x's report. I can't help thinking with him thta the Island would be most Eligible as the materials to compleat this must be brought from the Landing. wait your final directions. I am with perfect
Respect your most
Obdt Very Hbbl Servt
Edwd Antill

Sir, Head Quarters New Windsor June 1st 1781

You will proceed immediately with Colonel Hazen's Regiment to Albany and put yourself under the orders of Brigadier General Clinton.

I am, Sir, etc.
G. Washington

P.S. Be pleased to deliver to General Clionton, the letter forwarded herewith.

Dear Sir, Camp before York Town 4th Novr 1781

Head Quarters, Williamsburgh, Thursday, September 27, 1781

Parole Virginia. Countersigns York, Gloscester.

Officers of the day for Tomorrow
Major General Lincoln
Colonel Dayton
Lt. Col. Antill
B.M. Hobbey

The Rolls are to be called with the greatest strictness at retreat beating this evening and again at tattoo in presence of the Field Officers, at which time no Officer or soldier in condition to March is to be absent from his Post in Camp. The General confides in the Commanders of Corps for the punctual execution of these orders.

Head Quarters before York, Monday, October 1, 1781

Parole France. Countersigns Spain, America.

Head Quarters near York, Saturday, November 3, 1781.

Parole Virginia. Countersigns York, Gloscester.

For the day tomorrow
Brigadier General Clinton
Lieutenant Colonel Antill
Major Fish
Brigade Major Lloyd

Dear Sir, Camp before York Town 4th Novr 1781

The peculiar situation of this Regiment at present requires your particular attention. Your own Promotion Brig. Brevette is the only one that has taken place with Us in the course of three years hard service. The officers in General are unify and the subalterns Duty in particular Extremely severe- I do therefore, in order to keep harmony in the Corps and Do Justice to Merit request that we may be permitted to exercise the powers by Congress to its Delegates, or fall upon a Method xx. His Excellency the Commander in Chief's approbation of the following promotions taking place in the Regiment as soon as possible. Viz xx Olivie, a man of distinguished merit and an old officer to be Major for the vacany in the Regiment Captain William Satterlie who has been in actual service June 1775 to the Rank of Major by Brevette Lieut. Germain Deonne to a Company Ensign McPherson who served under Genl Montgomery at the Reduction of St. Johns to a Lieutenancy. Mr. xx Peasser & xx Thompson worthy Volunteers & Serjeant Dixon to the Rank of Ensigns-

The General Orders of June last regarding the filling up the vacancies in the respective Corps as soon as possible with which the Officers are acquainted is alledged as a xx by the Corps to adjust the above arrangement.

I am with respect
with the Most Perfect Respect
Your Excellencies most
Obedt & most Hubl
Edwd Antill

In the name of God, Amen. I, ANN ANTILL, at present of the City of New York, in North America, being of sound mind but old and infirm, etc. I leave to my son Edward my lands in the County of Bergen, in the Province of New Jersey, left to me by the last Will of John Corbett, Esq. I desire that my money in the hands of Charles Lowndes, Esq., given to me by the Will of my deceased sister, Euphamia Norris, be divided into five equal parts and disposed of as follows, viz.: to my grandson, John Collins Antill, son of John Antill, Esq. to my granddaughter, Isabella Graham Antill, daughter of my son, Edward Antill, Esq. to my granddaughter, Ann Cochran, daughter of Richard Cochran, Esq. to my granddaughter, Sarah Morris, daughter of Lieut. Colonel John Morris and to my granddaughter, Elizabeth Colden Antill, daughter of my son, Lewis Antill, deceased. As to the money given to me by my late beloved husband, Edward Antill, Esq., and any other money I may die possessed of, I desire it may be equally divided among my children. I make my son, John Antill, Esquire, my sole executor.

Dated March 27, 1778. Witnesses, Thomas Davies, Ann Morris, Thos. Skinner, baker. Proved, November 20, 1781.

Sir: Philadelphia, December 27, 1781

In reply to your application for leave of absence, I must observe that Genl. Hazen when last in Town signified to me his intention of applying for permission to go to the Eastward about the middle of January, upon business that required his personal attendance, and that Lt. Colo. Antill would also wish to be indulged in Visiting his Family in the course of the Winter. Considering these circumstances should I fully comply with your request the post at Lancaster might be too destitute of field Officers to have the necessary duty properly discharged, I can therefore only grant you leave of Absence untill the Gentlemen above mentioned leave the Post, when upon your being informed of it, I should wish you to join and do duty with the Regt. If these Circumstances should not take place and there will be a sufficient No. of officers with the troops, I have no objections to your Visiting your friends for the Term mentioned. I am etc. (18)

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Person:Alexander Fowler (2)

Page 31 - More than half the month of January, 1779, wore away without anything of importance occurring to the westward of Pittsburgh, when Samuel Sample, an assistant quartermaster, sent by Colonel Gibson, (see also, John Gibson (soldier)), from Fort Laurens to Coshocton, for corn and other articles, had one man killed, and another deperately wounded, by treacherous Delawares. The man killed was John Nash, of the thirteenth Virginia regiment killed 22 Jan 1779. The man wounded was Peter Parchment, of the same regiment as Nash wounded on the 27th Jan 1779 he finally recovered.

Page 150, 151, 152 - Carlisle, May 08, 1783 - Irvine to Washington - This letter is the last one written by Irvine as commander of the western department to Washington - "Sir: - Your excellency's favor of the 16th of April did not come to hand till this day. Agreeable to your desire, I will proceed to Fort Pitt (Pennsylvania) immediately. " - Irvine reached Fort Pitt (Pennsylvania) on his third trip out, a little past the middle of May. On the first of July, because of the scarcity of provisions at his post, he furloughed most of the troops for a few days, and afterward continued the furloughing for some time, in rotation. From the fifteenth of May to the eighteenth of July, there was but one maraud of savages into the western settlements. From the last mentioned date to the time of Irvine's final departure from Pittsburgh, comparative quiet reigned throughout the western department. On the twenty sixth of September, he received a letter from the assistant secretary at war notifying him that as soon as a detachment of troops arrived which were then on their way, he would be relieved from command at Fort Pitt (Pennsylvania), which he so much desired. He was authorized to furlough as many of his garrison at once as consistent with safety. This he did, turning over the remainder to one of his captains, and on the first day of October started for his home in Carlisle.

Before his departure, Irvine was presented with the following address - Pittsburgh, September 30, 1783 - To Brigadier General Irvine, Comanding at Fort Pitt (Pennsylvania) and its Dependencies - Sir: - The inhabitants of Pittsburgh having just learned that you intend to retire from this command tomorrow, would do injustice to their own feelings if they did not express their thanks to you, and their sense of your merit as an officer. During your command in this department, you have demonstrated that amidst the tumults of war, the laws may be enforced and civil liberty and society protected. Your attention to the order and discipline of the regular troops under your command, as well as to the militia, your regard to the civil rights of the inhabitants, the care you have taken of the public property, and your economy in the expenditure of the public money, we have all witnessed. This conduct, we assure you, has given general satisfaction to a people who, before your time, were, unfortunately for them, much divided, but now united. As you are now about to quit the military life (in which your ability and integrity have been so conspicuous), we wish you all possible happiness, and that your fellow citizens may long enjoy your usefulness in civil life, in which we doubt not you will deserve their utmost confidence. We regret that we were not sooner informed of the time you intended to set out, as we are confident the whole country would have, with pride, joined us in this or mor animated and better drawn-up address. We sincerely wish you health and a happy meeting with your family and friends at Carlisle - and are, with great esteem and respect, sir your obedient and very humble servants,

General Irvine's Reply - Fort Pitt (Pennsylvania), September 30, 1783 - Gentlemen: Accept my sincere thanks for the address, however flattering, handed me by you on behalf of the inhabitants of the town of Pittsburgh. Concious of the rectitude of my intentions, I am happy that they have met with your approbation. This testimony of your satisfaction is to me a most pleasing reward for the anxious moments I have passed. I have ever felt disposed to sacrafice personal considerations for the benefit not only of the public, but for that of every individual connected with my local command. Your concurrence in all the measures which I adopted to facilitate the public service, deserves my most unfeigned acknowledgments. I have the honor to be, with great gregard, gentlemen, your most obedient servant, - W. IRVINE.

Page 224 - Alexander Fowler came to America 1768 as Lieutenant in the Eighteenth British Infantry, also known as the Royal Irish Regiment (1684–1922). About the year 1769-1770 the regiment was stationed at Fort Pitt (Pennsylvania), and in 1771-1772 at Fort Chartres in Illinois. There, Fowler was for a time commandant of the post at Kaskaskia, Illinois. Sometime before the Revolution, Lieutenant Fowler retired from the army and became a permanent resident of Pittsburgh. He embraced the patriot cause, acting as auditor of military accounts and deputy judge-advocate for the Western Department. Fowler died soon after the close of the war. One of his daughters became the wife of Samuel Sample, the well-known inn-keeper of Pittsburg.

Page 393, 394 – Colonel Daniel Brodhead IV Accused – General George Washington to Alexander Fowler. Washington Papers. Draft. – Head Quarters New Windsor – 5th May 1781.

CHAPTER XXII - MORAVIANS AND WYANDOTS - Page 147 - Another important change took place on the frontier in the fall of 1781. Several time Colonel Daniel Brodhead IV had been involved in quarrels, not only with the local militia officers, but with members of his own staff at Forts Pitt and McIntosh and when he was accused by Alexander Fowler, a Pittsburg merchant, who had been appointed to audit the military accounts in the West, of speculating with public money, the officers insisted that he should resign his command to Colonel John Gibson (see also, John Gibson (soldier)), the next in rank. Although a court-martial had been ordered to try him, Colonel Daniel Brodhead IV declined to retire, and made it necessary for Washington to write to him under date of September 6, to turn over his command to Colonel John Gibson (see also, John Gibson (soldier)). Colonel Daniel Brodhead IV obeyed this order on September 17 and departed for Philadelphia. He was acquitted of the charges against him and for many years afterward occupied offices of trust and profit in Pennsylvania. He died in 1809 and was buried at Milford, Pa.

Annals of the Fowler Family Page Introduction Page 2 - "This story runs that a Fowler of England, who was a silk weaver and merchant, won the affections and hand in marriage of a daughter of the noble Douglas Family of Stirling Castle, Scotland. It is told that Fowler stole his bride with as much spirit as a Scottish nobleman would have done, such a doughty Lochinvar was he. The sad part of the story was the early death of the young wife, who was beautiful, of course, as all young ladies were who "dwelt in castle halls," - leaving a babe, a manchild, to perpetuate her sad memory. If the romance is true, - and I have no reasons for doubting it, - I am inclined to believe that the Lieutenant Alexander Folwler of the "King's Foot" of the colony of Virginia during the French and Indian wars, was the son of this high-born Scottish lady, for the tradition says that he came to America when 19 years of age, and that he had many half brothers and sisters, some of whom may have followed him to the new country.

Military Services of Fowlers in Virginia During Early Wars Of The Colony And State - Mention of the earliest military service is from a Land Office Warrant, No. 270. "To the principal surveyor of any county within the commonwealth of Virginia: This shall be your warrant to survey and lay off in one or more surveys for Alexander Fowler or assigns the quantity of 2000 acres of land due unto the said Alexander for military services performed by him as Lieutenant in Capt. Henry Peyton's Company under Major General Sir John Irwin, Colonel of his Majesty's Regiment of Foot in the late war between Great Britain and France, agreeable to the terms of the King of Great Britain's Proclamation of 1763, a Certificate of which and of the said Alexander Fowler (being) an inhabitant of this State at the time of Passing the land. [illegible] proven is received into the Land Office. Given under my hand and seal of the said office on this 16th day of Feb. 1781. John Hall."

Page 74 - The social instincts of the people found expression in another direction. The Revolutionary War, the troubles with the Indians, the more or less strained relations existing between France and England, had combined to inbreed a military spirit. Pennsylvania, with a population, in 1800 of 602,365, had enrolled in the militia 88,707 of its citizens. The militia was divided into light infantry, rifelmen, grenadiers, cavalry, and artillery. Allegheny County had a brigade of militia, consisting of eight regiments. The commander was General Alexander Fowler, an old Englishman who had served in America, in the 18th, or Royal Irish Regiment (1684–1922). On the breaking out of the Revolutionary War, he had resigned his commission on account of his sympathy with the Americans. Being unfit for active service, Congress appointed him Auditor of the Western Department at Pittsburgh.

Abstracts of Wills and Administrations of Allegheny County, Registered at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Abstracted and Contributed by Miss Mary Ellison Wood.
Alexander Fowler, dated June 2, 1798, proved March 5, 1806 wife Sarah name sake and nephew Alexander Fowler adoped boy Devereaux Henry Fowler plantation of 400 acres of Virginia Military lands situated between the Miamee and Scioto (see Virginia Military District) To Nathaniel Jones as a mark of gratitude James Kelly residing with wife wife Sarah executor witnesses, William Amberson and Stewart Heney. 1, p. 212.

Proceeding's of a Court Martial and Retirement of Alexander Fowler from the 18th, or Royal Irish Regiment (1684–1922).
Alexander Fowler (d. 1806), who had served as a British army officer from 1757 to 1775, wrote John Jay see also Spanish Ambassador, John Jay on 18 Jan. 1779, enclosing a memorial to Congress of that date, in which he offered his services in any capacity that Congress thought useful (DNA:PCC, item 78). Congress read Fowler's letter and memorial the following day and referred them to the committee of conference (see JCC, 13:79). On 11 Feb., Fowlerwas nominated in Congress to be an army auditor, and nine days later he was so elected (see JCC, 13:177, 217). Fowler served as auditor for the western department stationed at Fort Pitt at least until 1781, when he brought charges of misconduct against the departmental commander, Colonel Daniel Brodhead IV. Fowler subsequently became a merchant in Pittsburgh, where he lived for the remainder of his life. Although Fowler had retired from the 18th Royal Irish Regiment (1684–1922) in October 1775 as a lieutenant, he presented himself to the Americans as a captain, probably on the grounds that he had been the regiment’s senior lieutenant at the time of his retirement and believed that he had been unfairly denied promotion. Fowler says in his memorial to Congress that he had resigned his commission in the British army because he had been severely persecuted by his superiors for his outspoken advocacy of the American cause, beginning in 1773 while he was stationed with his regiment in Philadelphia. Accompanying his regiment to Boston in the fall of 1774, Fowler was tried and convicted by court-martial there on 25 Sept. 1775 of behaving "in a Manner Unbecoming the character of an Officer and a Gentleman, by Exhibiting, frivolous, Malicious, Wicked and ill grounded charges" against Capt. Benjamin Charnock Payne of the 18th, or Royal Irish Regiment (1684–1922) "before a General Court Martial" (Stevens, Howe’s Orderly Book, 96–97). General Thomas Gage approved but remitted the court’s sentence of being discharged from the service. After his retirement two weeks later, Fowler went to England, where he tried unsuccessfully to sue General Thomas Gage for £5,000 sterling in damages. On 6 Aug. 1778 Fowler petitioned the American commissioners in Paris to help him obtain passage to America for himself and his wife (see Franklin Papers, 27:221–24). The commissioners provided that assistance in a letter of 22 Aug. 1778 addressed to Thomas Read or any other captain of any vessel bound to America (see Franklin Papers, 27:286–87). The Fowlers arrived at Marblehead, Mass., on 20 Nov. 1778 and at Philadelphia on 1 Jan. 1779.

Fowler, Alexander (Captain). Philadelphia, January 18, 1779.
To Congress. Incloses memorial representing the injustice and harshness received from the British since leaving their service and joining the American cause misrepresentations made to General Thomas Gage brought before a British court like a criminal Captain Benjamin Carnock Payne testifies against him his letters intercepted one from Colonel George Morgan see also George Morgan (merchant) produced in court commenced an action in London against General Thomas Gage for L5,000 has lost the case, and costs amount to L200 wishes Congress to compensate him for sufferings, etc. testimonials as to conduct, etc., when in the British army. Chapter A, No. 78, volume 9, pages 237 and 239.

Fowler, A. Pittsburgh, May 24, 1780.
To the Secretary for Foreign Affairs John Jay see also Ambassador of Spain, John Jay. Concerning the seizure by the Spaniards of his boat and goods copy of order of the Spanish commandant at the Natches great injustice done him, as some boats were allowed to pass. Chapter A, No. 78, volume 9, page 555.

Fowler, A. Philadelphia, September 29, 1787.
To the Secretary for Foreign Affairs John Jay see also Ambassador of Spain, John Jay. Has petitioned the Spanish Ambassador for a recommendation to the Governor of New Orleans Esteban Rodríguez Miró for permission to transport 3,000 or 4,000 barrels of flour to that city if allowed this, will be relieved from present embarrassments. Chapter A, No. 78, volume 9, page 571.

  • Men who served in the 18th Royal Irish Regiment of Foot in America
    Major General John Folliot (1691–1762)
    Major Henry Folliott
    Colonel Sir John Sebright, 6th Baronet
    Colonel Aeneas Mackay (Commissary Department)
    Lieutenant Colonel John Wilkins
    Captain Hugh Antrobus
    Captain Charles Edmonstone (Grenadier Coy)
    Captain Isaac Hamilton
    Captain John Stewart
    Captain George Stainforth
    Captain John Shee
    Captain Benjamin Johnson
    Captain John Evans
    Captain Benjamin Chapman
    Captain Thomas Batt
    Captain Hugh Lord (Light Infantry Coy)
    Captain Benjamin Charnock Payne
    Captain Robert Hamilton
    Captain Lieutenant John Mawby, Sr.
    Captain Lieutenant Matthew Lane
    Lieutenant Colonel John Wilkins
    Lieutenant Alexander Fowler
    Lieutenant Nicholas Trist (Husband of Elizabeth House [1]) friends of Alexander Fowler. Having stayed in Pittsburgh and also traveled with Fowler on occasion (Travel Diary). Fowler was Godparent to their child.
    Ensign John Peter DeLancey
    Surgeon Edward Hand
    Thomas Batt
    In 1767 -
    In 1769 -
    In 1772 -
    In 1775 -

In 1783, Alexander Fowler entered 10,000 acres on the Little Kentucky River


The program's origins lie with the Citizens Commemorative Coin Advisory Committee (CCCAC), which was appointed by Secretary of Treasury Lloyd Bentsen in December 1993 and chaired by Mint Director Philip N. Diehl. From the first days of the CCCAC, one of its members, David Ganz, urged the committee to endorse the 50 States Quarters program, and in 1995, the CCCAC did so. The committee then sought the support of Representative Michael Castle (R-Delaware), chairman of the House Banking subcommittee with jurisdiction over the nation's coinage. Castle's initial caution was resolved when Diehl suggested the coins be issued in the order the states entered the Union or ratified the Constitution. Delaware, Castle's home state, was the first state to ratify the Constitution. Castle subsequently held hearings and filed legislation to authorize the program. [6]

Despite the support of the director of the mint and the treasury secretary-appointed CCCAC, the Treasury Department opposed the 50 States Quarters Program, as commemorative coinage had come to be identified with abuses and excesses. [7] The mint's economic models estimated the program would earn the government between $2.6 billion and $5.1 billion in additional seignorage and $110 million in additional numismatic profits. Diehl and Castle used these profit projections to urge the Treasury's support, but Treasury officials found the projections to lack credibility (at the program's conclusion, the Mint estimated the program had earned $3.0 billion in additional seigniorage and $136.2 million in additional numismatic profits). [4]

Diehl worked with Castle behind the scenes to move legislation forward despite the Treasury's opposition to the program. [1] [8] However, the Treasury suggested to Castle that the department should conduct a study to determine the feasibility of the program. With Diehl's advice, Castle accepted the Treasury's offer, and the agreement was codified in the United States Commemorative Coin Act of 1996. [9] [10] The act also authorized the secretary to proceed with the 50 States Quarters Program without further congressional action if the results of the feasibility study were favorable.

The Treasury Department engaged the consulting firm Coopers and Lybrand to conduct the study in 1997, which confirmed the Mint's demand, seigniorage and numismatic profit projections for the program. [7] Among other conclusions, the study found that 98 million Americans were likely to save one or more full sets of the quarters (at the program's conclusion, the Mint estimated that 147 million Americans collected the 50 state quarters). Nevertheless, the Treasury Department continued to oppose the program and declined to proceed with it without a congressional mandate to do so. [4]

In 1997, Congress issued that mandate in the form of S. 1228, the 50 States Commemorative Coin Program Act, which was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on December 1, 1997.

The 50 State quarters were released by the United States Mint every ten weeks, or five each year. They were released in the same order that the states ratified the Constitution or were admitted to the Union. Each quarter's reverse commemorated one of the 50 states with a design emblematic of its unique history, traditions and symbols. Certain design elements, such as state flags, images of living persons, and head-and-shoulder images of deceased persons were prohibited.

The authorizing legislation and Mint procedures gave each state a substantial role and considerable discretion in determining the design that would represent their state. The majority of states followed a process by which the governor solicited the state's citizens to submit design concepts and appointed an advisory group to oversee the process. Governors submitted three to five finalist design concepts to the secretary of treasury for approval. Approved designs were returned to the states for selection of a final design.

States usually employed one of two approaches in making this selection. In 33 states, the governor selected the final recommended design, often based on the recommendations of advisory groups and citizens. In the other 17 states, citizens selected the final design through online, telephone, mail or other public votes. US Mint engravers applied all final design concepts approved by the secretary of treasury. The media and public attention surrounding this process and the release of each state's quarter was intense and produced significant publicity for the program. [4] [11]

The 50 State Quarters Program was the most popular commemorative coin program in United States history the United States Mint has estimated that 147 million Americans have collected state quarters and 3.5 million participated in the selection of state quarter designs. [4]

By the end of 2008, all of the original 50 States quarters had been minted and released. The official total, according to the US Mint, was 34,797,600,000 coins. The average mintage was 695,952,000 coins per state, but ranged between Virginia's 1,594,616,000 to Oklahoma's 416,600,000. Demand was stronger for quarters issued early in the program. This was due to weakening economic conditions in later years and the waning of the initial surge of demand when the program was launched. Another factor was the reassertion of the Treasury Department's opposition to the program. When the director's term ended in 2000, the Treasury proceeded to reduce and finally terminate the most effective elements of the Mint's promotional program despite the high return on investment they earned. [ citation needed ]

Year No. State Release date
(statehood date) [12]
Mintage [13] Design Elements depicted Engraver
1999 1 Delaware January 4, 1999
(December 7, 1787)
774,824,000 Caesar Rodney on horseback
Captions: "The First State", "Caesar Rodney"
William Cousins
2 Pennsylvania March 8, 1999
(December 12, 1787)
707,332,000 Commonwealth statue, state outline, keystone
Caption: "Virtue, Liberty, Independence"
John Mercanti
3 New Jersey May 17, 1999
(December 18, 1787)
662,228,000 Washington Crossing the Delaware, which includes George Washington (standing) and James Monroe (holding the flag)
Caption: "Crossroads of the Revolution"
Alfred Maletsky
4 Georgia July 19, 1999
(January 2, 1788)
939,932,000 Peach, live oak (state tree) sprigs, state outline
Banner with text: "Wisdom, Justice, Moderation" (the state motto)
T. James Ferrell
5 Connecticut October 12, 1999
(January 9, 1788)
1,346,624,000 Charter Oak
Caption: "The Charter Oak"
T. James Ferrell
2000 6 Massachusetts January 3, 2000
(February 6, 1788)
1,163,784,000 The Minute Man statue, state outline
Caption: "The Bay State"
Thomas D. Rodgers
7 Maryland March 13, 2000
(April 28, 1788)
1,234,732,000 Dome of the Maryland State House, white oak (state tree) clusters
Caption: "The Old Line State"
Thomas D. Rodgers
8 South Carolina May 22, 2000
(May 23, 1788)
1,308,784,000 Carolina wren (state bird), yellow jessamine (state flower), cabbage palmetto (state tree), state outline
Caption: "The Palmetto State"
Thomas D. Rodgers
9 New Hampshire August 7, 2000
(June 21, 1788)
1,169,016,000 Old Man of the Mountain, nine stars
Captions: "Old Man of the Mountain", "Live Free or Die"
William Cousins
10 Virginia October 16, 2000
(June 25, 1788)
1,594,616,000 Ships Susan Constant, Godspeed, Discovery
Captions: "Jamestown, 1607–2007", "Quadricentennial"
Edgar Z. Steever
2001 11 New York January 2, 2001
(July 26, 1788)
1,275,040,000 Statue of Liberty, 11 stars, state outline with line tracing Hudson River and Erie Canal
Caption: "Gateway to Freedom"
Alfred Maletsky
12 North Carolina March 12, 2001
(November 21, 1789)
1,055,476,000 Wright Flyer, John T. Daniels's iconic photo of the Wright brothers
Caption: "First Flight"
John Mercanti
13 Rhode Island May 21, 2001
(May 29, 1790)
870,100,000 America's Cup yacht Reliance on Narragansett Bay, Claiborne Pell Newport Bridge
Caption: "The Ocean State"
Thomas D. Rodgers
14 Vermont August 6, 2001
(March 4, 1791)
882,804,000 Maple trees with sap buckets, Camel's Hump Mountain
Caption: "Freedom and Unity"
T. James Ferrell
15 Kentucky October 15, 2001
(June 1, 1792)
723,564,000 Thoroughbred racehorse behind fence, Bardstown mansion, Federal Hill
Caption: "My Old Kentucky Home"
T. James Ferrell
2002 16 Tennessee January 2, 2002
(June 1, 1796)
648,068,000 Fiddle, trumpet, guitar, musical score, three stars
Banner with text: "Musical Heritage"
Donna Weaver
17 Ohio March 11, 2002
(March 1, 1803)
632,032,000 Wright Flyer III (built by the Wright Brothers who were from Dayton) astronaut state outline
Caption: "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers"
Donna Weaver
18 Louisiana May 20, 2002
(April 30, 1812)
764,204,000 Brown pelican (state bird) trumpet with musical notes, outline of Louisiana Purchase on map of US
Caption: "Louisiana Purchase"
John Mercanti
19 Indiana August 2, 2002
(December 11, 1816)
689,800,000 IndyCar, state outline, 19 stars
Caption: "Crossroads of America"
Donna Weaver
20 Mississippi October 15, 2002
(December 10, 1817)
579,600,000 Two magnolia blossoms (state flower)
Caption: "The Magnolia State"
Donna Weaver
2003 21 Illinois January 2, 2003
(December 3, 1818)
463,200,000 Young Abraham Lincoln farm scene Chicago skyline state outline 21 stars, 11 on left edge and 10 on right
Captions: "Land of Lincoln" "21st state/century"
Donna Weaver
22 Alabama March 17, 2003
(December 14, 1819)
457,400,000 Helen Keller, seated, longleaf pine (state tree) branch, magnolia blossoms
Banner with text: "Spirit of Courage"
Caption: "Helen Keller" in standard print and Braille
Norman E. Nemeth
23 Maine June 2, 2003
(March 15, 1820)
448,800,000 Pemaquid Point Lighthouse the schooner Victory Chimes [14] at sea Donna Weaver
24 Missouri August 4, 2003
(August 10, 1821)
453,200,000 Gateway Arch, Lewis and Clark and York [15] returning down Missouri River
Caption: "Corps of Discovery 1804–2004"
Alfred Maletsky
25 Arkansas October 20, 2003
(June 15, 1836)
457,800,000 Diamond (state gem), rice stalks, mallard flying above a lake John Mercanti
2004 26 Michigan January 26, 2004
(January 26, 1837)
459,600,000 State outline, outline of Great Lakes system
Caption: "Great Lakes State"
Donna Weaver
27 Florida March 29, 2004
(March 3, 1845)
481,800,000 Spanish galleon, Sabal palmetto (state tree), Space Shuttle
Caption: "Gateway to Discovery"
T. James Ferrell
28 Texas June 1, 2004
(December 29, 1845)
541,800,000 State outline, star, lariat
Caption: "The Lone Star State"
Norman E. Nemeth
29 Iowa August 30, 2004
(December 28, 1846)
465,200,000 Schoolhouse, teacher and students planting a tree based on the Grant Wood painting Arbor Day [16] [17]
Captions: "Foundation in Education", "Grant Wood"
John Mercanti
30 Wisconsin October 25, 2004
(May 29, 1848)
453,200,000 Head of a cow, round of cheese and ear of corn (state grain).
Banner with text: "Forward"
Alfred Maletsky
2005 31 California January 31, 2005
(September 9, 1850)
520,400,000 John Muir, California condor, Half Dome
Captions: "John Muir," "Yosemite Valley"
Don Everhart
32 Minnesota April 4, 2005
(May 11, 1858)
488,000,000 Common loon (state bird), fishing, state outline
Caption: "Land of 10,000 Lakes"
Charles L. Vickers
33 Oregon June 6, 2005
(February 14, 1859)
720,200,000 Crater Lake National Park
Caption: "Crater Lake"
Donna Weaver
34 Kansas August 29, 2005
(January 29, 1861)
563,400,000 American bison (state mammal), sunflowers (state flower) Norman E. Nemeth
35 West Virginia October 14, 2005
(June 20, 1863)
721,600,000 New River Gorge Bridge
Caption: "New River Gorge"
John Mercanti
2006 36 Nevada January 31, 2006
(October 31, 1864)
589,800,000 Mustangs, mountains, rising sun, sagebrush (state flower)
Banner with text: "The Silver State"
Don Everhart
37 Nebraska April 3, 2006
(March 1, 1867)
594,400,000 Chimney Rock National Historic Site, Conestoga wagon
Caption: "Chimney Rock"
Charles L. Vickers
38 Colorado June 14, 2006
(August 1, 1876)
569,000,000 Longs Peak
Banner with text: "Colorful Colorado"
Norman E. Nemeth
39 North Dakota August 28, 2006
(November 2, 1889)
664,800,000 American bison, badlands Donna Weaver
40 South Dakota November 6, 2006
(November 2, 1889)
510,800,000 Mount Rushmore, ring-necked pheasant (state bird), wheat (state grass) John Mercanti
2007 41 Montana January 29, 2007
(November 8, 1889)
513,240,000 American bison skull in the center with mountains and the Missouri River in the background.
Caption: "Big Sky Country"
Don Everhart
42 Washington April 2, 2007
(November 11, 1889)
545,200,000 Salmon leaping in front of Mount Rainier
Caption: "The Evergreen State"
Charles L. Vickers
43 Idaho June 4, 2007 [18]
(July 3, 1890)
581,400,000 Peregrine falcon, state outline with star indicating location of state capital Boise, Idaho
Caption: "Esto Perpetua"
Don Everhart
44 Wyoming September 4, 2007
(July 10, 1890)
564,400,000 Bucking Horse and Rider
Caption: "The Equality State"
Norman E. Nemeth
45 Utah November 5, 2007
(January 4, 1896)
508,200,000 Golden spike, Locomotives Jupiter, No. 119, and the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad
Caption: "Crossroads of the West"
Joseph F. Menna
2008 46 Oklahoma January 28, 2008
(November 16, 1907)
416,600,000 Scissor-tailed flycatcher (state bird), with Indian blankets (state wildflower) in background Phebe Hemphill
47 New Mexico April 7, 2008
(January 6, 1912)
488,600,000 State outline with relief, Zia sun symbol from flag
Caption: "Land of Enchantment"
Don Everhart
48 Arizona June 2, 2008
(February 14, 1912)
509,600,000 Grand Canyon, saguaro cactus closeup.
Banner with text: "Grand Canyon State"
Joseph F. Menna
49 Alaska August 25, 2008
(January 3, 1959)
505,800,000 Grizzly bear with salmon (state fish) and North Star
Caption: "The Great Land"
Charles L. Vickers
50 Hawaii November 3, 2008
(August 21, 1959)
517,600,000 Statue of Kamehameha I with state outline and motto
Caption: "Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono"
Don Everhart

District of Columbia and United States Territories release Edit

  • Alabama: The Alabama state quarter is the first coin circulated in the US that features Braille writing. [citation needed]
  • Arizona: The banner reading "Grand Canyon State" in the design is intended to split the quarter into two sections and indicate the Grand Canyon and the Saguaro Cactus are in two different Arizona scenes, as the saguaro cactus is not native to the area near the Grand Canyon. [19]
  • Connecticut: The Charter Oak on the back of the Connecticut quarter fell during a storm on August 21, 1856. It also appears on a 1936 half dollar commemorating the 300th anniversary of the state's settlement by Europeans. [20]
  • Georgia: The outline of the state of Georgia on the quarter appears to have accidentally left out Dade County, which is in the extreme northwestern part of the state. In 1860, Dade residents voted to secede from the United States and from the state of Georgia. The county's secession was never legally recognized, and Dade residents chose to "rejoin" the United States in 1945. [21]
  • Hawaii: The Hawaii quarter features a rendition of the statue of Kamehameha I, who united the Hawaiian Islands in 1810, with the state outline and motto. This is the first business strike US coin to feature royalty or a monarch of any kind.
  • Illinois: The Illinois quarter is the only quarter to directly reference and portray an urban city, with a picture of the Chicagoskyline (the Missouri quarter indirectly references the city of St. Louis with its portrayal of the iconic Gateway Arch).
  • Indiana: The Indiana quarter—having a problem similar to Georgia's quarter—is missing part of its northwestern corner. Lake County is either partially or completely missing (where it borders with Lake Michigan). The error did not garner considerable notice.
  • Iowa: When Iowans were debating the design for its state quarter in 2002, there was a grassroots effort to use a design featuring the Sullivan brothers (to honor the five Waterloo siblings who died when the ship they were aboard—the USS Juneau (CL-52)—sank during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 1942). The effort was ultimately unsuccessful, and a Grant Wood design was used, but not before some copyright issues were resolved. [22][23]
  • Maryland: The Maryland Statehouse featured on the coin is the country's largest wooden dome built without nails. [24] Some residents complained that the quarter did not feature the state's famous blue crab.
  • Mississippi: The magnolia blossom design, while recognizable at the high levels of magnification at which it was presented for review, appears at production scale as an amorphous mass recognizable only when the accompanying state nickname inscription suggests the image's intended content to the viewer.
  • Missouri: The design contest winner for the Missouri quarter, Paul Jackson, has claimed that the Mint engraver needlessly redesigned Jackson's original submission. The Mint stated that Jackson's design was not coinable, but a private mint later demonstrated that it was. It emerged that Mint engravers may exercise discretion in the final design of US coinage, and the term "design contest" was dropped from solicitations for ideas for later state quarters. [25][26]
  • Nebraska: One of the final concepts for the Nebraska quarter was based on the Ponca leader Standing Bear, who, in a suit brought against the federal government, successfully argued that Native Americans were citizens entitled to rights under the US Constitution.
  • New Hampshire: The Old Man of the Mountain, featured on the back of the New Hampshire quarter, collapsed in 2003.
  • Oregon: Oregon's design features a scene of Crater Lake and Wizard Island. This design was chosen by the Oregon Commemorative Quarter Commission. The Quarter Commission was made up of 18 members, including GovernorTed Kulongoski, State TreasurerRandall Edwards, Columbia Sportswear Chairperson Gert Boyle, numismatist Monte Mensing, and Beaverton High School student Laura Davis, along with state legislators Charles Starr, Joan Dukes, Betsy Johnson, and Betsy Close, among others. The Quarter Commission chose the Crater Lake design from three other finalists: a jumping salmon, the Oregon Trail, and Mount Hood.
  • Rhode Island: With a mast height of 199 ft (61m) the yacht Reliance could not have sailed under the Claiborne Pell Newport Bridge, which has a clearance below of 188 ft (57m), although the coin doesn't show the ship sailing under the bridge. This would also not have happened because Reliance was sold for scrap in 1913 and the Pell Bridge opened in 1969.
  • South Dakota: Although South Dakota has the second highest proportion of American Indians of any state, the South Dakota quarter features three items that are the result of European settlement. These symbols are Mount Rushmore, which honors four U.S. presidents and is carved into the Black Hills which are seen as sacred by the Lakota, a ring-necked pheasant (an exotic species), and wheat, which has replaced tens of thousands of square miles of diverse grasslands.
  • Tennessee: There has also been some controversy over the Tennessee quarter. Some sources [27] claim that the details on the instruments depicted on the quarter are inaccurate, such as the number of strings on the guitar and the location of the tubing on the trumpet. The number of strings on the guitar-like instrument would be accurate if the instrument was a Mexican vihuela that influenced the country-and-western music prominent in Nashville culture and business.
The following map shows the years each state, federal district, or territory was released as a state quarter.
The following table has the quarters grouped by year.
Color Year 1st release 2nd release 3rd release 4th release 5th release 6th release
1999 Delaware Pennsylvania New Jersey Georgia Connecticut N/A
2000 Massachusetts Maryland South Carolina New Hampshire Virginia
2001 New York North Carolina Rhode Island Vermont Kentucky
2002 Tennessee Ohio Louisiana Indiana Mississippi
2003 Illinois Alabama Maine Missouri Arkansas
2004 Michigan Florida Texas Iowa Wisconsin
2005 California Minnesota Oregon Kansas West Virginia
2006 Nevada Nebraska Colorado North Dakota South Dakota
2007 Montana Washington Idaho Wyoming Utah
2008 Oklahoma New Mexico Arizona Alaska Hawaii
2009 District of Columbia Puerto Rico Guam American Samoa US Virgin Islands Northern Mariana Islands

In 1997, Congress passed the 50 States Commemorative Coin Program Act, which instructed the creation of the 50 State quarters series to "honor the unique Federal Republic of 50 States that comprise the United States and to promote the diffusion of knowledge among the youth of the United States about the individual states, their history and geography, and the rich diversity of the national heritage. ", and to encourage "young people and their families to collect memorable tokens of all of the States for the face value of the coins." [31]

While mintage totals of the various designs vary widely—Virginia quarters are almost 20 times as abundant as the Northern Marianas quarters—none of the regular circulating issues are rare enough to become a valuable investment.

There was, however, a measure of collector interest over die errors in the Wisconsin quarter. Some designs from the Denver mint feature corn without a smaller leaf, others feature a small leaf pointing upwards, and still others have the leaf bending down. [32] A set of all three quarters sold on eBay in February 2005 for $300 and initially saw significant increases, such as $1500 for individual coins, but as of February 2020 PCGS lists the value of MS-62 specimens from $92 to $130 each. [33]

Another die cast error ran with the first Delaware quarters. Being the first model of state quarter made, the mint gave it a disproportionate weight causing vending machines to not accept it. The quarter die was quickly fixed. Some Delaware quarters appeared without the last E, now saying, "THE FIRST STAT".

A major error occurred in 2000 when the reverse die of a Sacagawea dollar was combined with the obverse die of a state quarter on dollar-coin planchets to form what is known as a "mule". As of August 2019, only 19 of these specimens, produced on dollar planchets, are known to have escaped from the Mint. [34] [35] [36]

A 2005 Minnesota double die quarter, as well as a 2005 Minnesota quarter with extra trees (another die error), have both triggered numismatic interest. An unusual die break on some 2005 Kansas quarters created a humpback bison. [37] Relatively more common are Kansas quarters bearing the motto "IN GOD WE RUST." [38]

The United States produces proof coinage in circulating base metal and, since 1992, in separately sold sets with the dimes, quarters, and half-dollars in silver. For the silver issues, the 1999 set is the most valuable, being the first year of the series and with a relatively small mintage, although prices have significantly decreased since the 50 State Quarters Program ended. The set in base metal, of this or any other year, is worth only a fraction as much. The silver proof sets of later years, while having some intrinsic and collector worth, are also priced far lower. The public is cautioned to research prices before buying advertised state quarter year or proof sets.

In general, the program increased interest in quarter and general coin collecting. [39] Large numbers of ads, quarter products and quarter information were available during the years the program ran. Home Shopping Network, Franklin Mint, and Littleton Coin Company were among the most prominent in ad space.

Since the 50 State Quarters Program was expected to increase public demand for quarters which would be collected and taken out of circulation, the Mint used economic models to estimate the additional seigniorage the program would produce. These estimates established a range of $2.6 billion to $5.1 billion. (At the end of the program, the Mint estimated the actual increase in seigniorage to be $3 billion.) The Mint also estimated the program would earn $110 million in additional numismatic profits. (The final, post-program estimate was $136.2 million.) The Mint used these estimates to support the proposed program, and the legislation enacting the 50 States Quarters program cited these estimates. [4]


Planning Edit

Site Edit

The headquarters of the United Nations occupies a site beside the East River between 42nd and 48th Streets, on between 17 and 18 acres (6.9 and 7.3 ha) [a] of land purchased from the real estate developer William Zeckendorf Sr. [11] At the time, the site was part of Turtle Bay, which contained slaughterhouses and tenement buildings, as well as the original Eberhard Faber Pencil Factory. [9] By the 1910s, there was also a pencil factory and a gas company building in Turtle Bay, on the site of the current UN headquarters. The development of Sutton Place and Beekman Place, north of the current UN site, came in the 1920s. A yacht club on the site was proposed in 1925, but it proved to be too expensive. [11]

In 1946, Zeckendorf purchased the land with the intention to create an "X City" on the site. [10] This complex was to contain an office building and a hotel, each 57 stories tall, and an entertainment complex between them. The X City would have also had smaller apartment and office towers. [11] However, the $8.5 million ($74 million in 2019) for X City never materialized, and Nelson Rockefeller purchased an option for Zeckendorf's waterfront land in Turtle Bay. The purchase was funded by Nelson's father, John D. Rockefeller Jr. The Rockefeller family owned the Tudor City Apartments across First Avenue from the Zeckendorf site. [10] The city, in turn, spent $5 million ($43 million in 2019) on clearing the land. [9]

Design Edit

While the United Nations had dreamed of constructing an independent city for its new world capital, multiple obstacles soon forced the organization to downsize their plans. They ultimately decided to build on Rockefeller's East River plot, since the land was free and the land's owners were well known. [11] The diminutive site on the East River necessitated a Rockefeller Center-type vertical complex, thus, it was a given that the Secretariat would be housed in a tall office tower. During daily meetings from February to June 1947, the collaborative team produced at least 45 designs and variations. Rather than hold a competition for the design of the facilities for the headquarters, the UN decided to commission a multinational team of leading architects to collaborate on the design. Harrison was named as Director of Planning, and a Board of Design Consultants was composed of architects, planners and engineers nominated by member governments. The board consisted of N. D. Bassov of the Soviet Union, Gaston Brunfaut (Belgium), Ernest Cormier (Canada), Le Corbusier (France), Liang Seu-cheng (China), Sven Markelius (Sweden), Oscar Niemeyer (Brazil), Howard Robertson (United Kingdom), G. A. Soilleux (Australia), and Julio Vilamajó (Uruguay). [12] [11]

Niemeyer met with Corbusier at the latter's request shortly after the former arrived in New York City. Corbusier had already been lobbying hard to promote his own scheme 23, and thus, requested that Niemeyer not submit a design, lest he further confuse the contentious meetings of the Board of Design. Instead, Corbusier asked the younger architect Niemeyer to assist him with his project. Niemeyer began to absent himself from the meetings. Only after Wallace Harrison and Max Abramovitz repeatedly pressed him to participate did Niemeyer agree to submit his own project. Niemeyer's project 32 was finally chosen, but as opposed to Corbusier's project 23, which consisted of one building containing both the Assembly Hall and the councils in the center of the site (as it was hierarchically the most important building), Niemeyer's plan split the councils from the Assembly Hall, locating the first alongside the river, and the second on the right side of the secretariat. This would not split the site, but on the contrary, would create a large civic square. [13]

After much discussion, Harrison, who coordinated the meetings, determined that a design based on Niemeyer's project 32 and Le Corbusier's project 23 would be developed for the final project. Le Corbusier's project 23 consisted of a large block containing both the Assembly Hall and the Council Chambers near the center of the site with the Secretariat tower emerging as a slab from the south. Niemeyer's plan was closer to that actually constructed, with a distinctive General Assembly building, a long low horizontal block housing the other meeting rooms, and a tall tower for the Secretariat. The complex as built, however, repositioned Niemeyer's General Assembly building to the north of this tripartite composition. This plan included a public plaza as well. The UN headquarters was originally proposed alongside a grand boulevard leading eastward from Third Avenue or Lexington Avenue, between 46th Street to the south and 49th Street to the north. These plans were eventually downsized into Dag Hammarskjöld Plaza, a small plaza on the south side of 47th Street east of Second Avenue. [11]

Wallace Harrison's assistant, architect George Dudley, later stated: "It literally took our breath away to see the simple plane of the site kept open from First Avenue to the River, only three structures on it, standing free, a fourth lying low behind them along the river’s edge. [Niemeyer] also said, ‘beauty will come from the buildings being in the right space!’. The comparison between Le Corbusier's heavy block and Niemeyer's startling, elegantly articulated composition seemed to me to be in everyone's mind. " [14] Later on, Corbusier came once again to Niemeyer and asked him to reposition the Assembly Hall back to the center of the site. Such modification would destroy Niemeyer’s plans for a large civic square. However, he finally decided to accept the modification together, they submitted the scheme 23–32, which was built and is what can be seen today. [15] Along with suggestions from the other members of the Board of Design Consultants, this was developed into project 42G. This late project was built with some reductions and other modifications. [16]

Proposed alternatives Edit

Many cities vied for the honor of hosting the UN Headquarters site, prior to the selection of New York City. The selection of the East River site came after over a year of protracted study and consideration of many sites in the United States. A powerful faction among the delegates advocated returning to the former League of Nations complex in Geneva, Switzerland. [17] A wide variety of suggestions were made, including such fanciful suggestions as a ship on the high seas to housing the entire complex in a single tall building. Amateur architects submitted designs, local governments offered park areas, but the determined group of New York City boosters that included Grover Whalen, Thomas J. Watson, and Nelson Rockefeller, coordinated efforts with the Coordinator of Construction, Robert Moses, and Mayor William O'Dwyer, to assemble acceptable interim facilities. Sites in San Francisco (including the Presidio) and Marin County in California St. Louis, Missouri Boston, Massachusetts Chicago, Illinois Fairfield County, Connecticut Westchester County and Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in New York Tuskahoma, Oklahoma the Black Hills of South Dakota Belle Isle in Detroit, Michigan and a site on Navy Island straddling the U.S.-Canada border were considered as potential sites for the UN Headquarters. [18] [19] San Francisco, where the UN was founded in 1945, was favored by Australia, New Zealand, China, and the Philippines due to the city's proximity to their countries. [18] The UN and many of its delegates seriously considered Philadelphia for the headquarters the city offered to donate land in several select sites, including Fairmount Park, Andorra, and a Center City location which would have placed the headquarters along a mall extending from Independence Hall to Penn's Landing. [18] The Manhattan site was ultimately chosen over Philadelphia after John D. Rockefeller, Jr., offered to donate $8.5 million to purchase the land along the East River. [20] Robert Moses and Rockefeller Sr. convinced Nelson Rockefeller to buy the land after the Rockefellers' Kykuit estate in Mount Pleasant, New York was deemed too isolated from Manhattan. [21]

Previous temporary sites Edit

In 1945–46, London hosted the first meeting of the General Assembly in Methodist Central Hall, and the Security Council in Church House. The third and sixth General Assembly sessions, in 1948 and 1951, met in the Palais de Chaillot in Paris. Prior to the completion of the current headquarters, the UN used part of a Sperry Gyroscope Company factory in Lake Success, New York, for most of its operations, including the Security Council, between 1946 and 1952. [22] [23] The Security Council also held sessions on what was then the Bronx campus of Hunter College (now the site of Lehman College) from March to August 1946. [24] [25] Between 1946 and 1950, the General Assembly met at the New York City Building in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, which had been built for the 1939 New York World's Fair and is now the site of the Queens Museum. [26] [27] The Long Island Rail Road reopened the former World's Fair station as United Nations station. [28]

Construction Edit

Per an agreement with the city, the buildings met some but not all local fire safety and building codes. [12] In April 1948, U.S. President Harry S. Truman requested that Congress approve an interest-free loan of $65 million in order to fund construction. [29] The U.S. House of Representatives authorized the loan on August 6, 1948, on the condition that the UN repay the loan in twelve monthly installments between July 1951 and July 1952. Of the $65 million, $25 million was to be made available immediately from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. [30] However, the full loan was initially withheld due to a case regarding UN employee Valentin A. Gubitchev and a KGB spy Judith Coplon, who had been charged with espionage and were set to go on trial in March 1949. The House was loath to distribute the full $65 million because the government was concerned that the UN's proposed headquarters would grant diplomatic immunity to the two individuals. The UN used the Reconstruction Finance Corp.'s $25 million as a stopgap measure. [31] The resulting case circumscribed the immunity of UN employees. [32] To save money, the UN considered retaining an existing building on the Manhattan site, which had been slated for demolition once the headquarters was completed. [33] Until 1950, the UN refused to accept private donations for the headquarters' construction, citing a policy that prohibited them from accepting donations. [34]

The groundbreaking ceremony for the initial buildings occurred on September 14, 1948. A bucket of earth was removed to mark the start of construction for the basement of the 39-story Secretariat Building. [1] Fuller, Turner, Slattery, and Walsh, a consortium of four contracting companies from Manhattan and Queens, were selected to construct the Secretariat Building, as well as the foundations for the remaining buildings. [3] In October, Harrison requested that its 58 members and the 48 U.S. states participate in designing the interiors of the building's conference rooms. It was believed that if enough countries designed their own rooms, the UN would be able to reduce its own expenditures. [35] The headquarters were originally supposed to be completed in 1951, with the first occupants moving into the Secretariat Building in 1950. However, in November, New York City's construction coordinator Robert Moses reported that construction was two months behind schedule. By that time, 60% of the headquarters' site had been excavated. [36] The same month, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously voted to formally thank the national, state, and city governments for their role in building the headquarters. [37] The formal $23.8 million contract for the Secretariat Building was awarded in January 1949. [38]

A prayer space for people of all religions was announced on April 18, 1949. Until then, the UN had avoided the subject of a prayer room, because it had been difficult, if not impossible, to create a prayer room that could accommodate the various religions. [39] Two days after this announcement, workers erected the first steel beam for the Secretariat Building, to little official fanfare. The consortium working on the Secretariat Building announced that 13,000 tons of steel would eventually be used in the building, and that the steelwork would consist of a strong wind bracing system because the 72-by-287-foot (22 by 87 m) structure was so narrow. The flag of the United Nations was raised above the first beam as a demonstration for the many spectators who witnessed the first beam's erection. [40] The Secretariat Building was to be completed no later than January 1, 1951, and if the consortium of Fuller, Turner, Slattery, and Walsh exceeded that deadline, they had to pay a minimum penalty of $2,500 per day to the UN. [41] To reduce construction costs, the complex's planners downsized the Secretariat Building from 42 stories to 39 stories. [42]

The cornerstone of the headquarters was originally supposed to be laid on April 10, 1949. However, in March of that year, Secretary-General Trygve Lie delayed the ceremony after learning that Truman would not present to officiate the cornerstone laying. [43] Seven months later, on October 11, Truman accepted an invitation to attend a cornerstone-laying ceremony, which was planned to occur on October 24. [44] At the ceremony, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey laid the headquarters' cornerstone. [45]

In June 1949, UN officials wrote a letter to the American Bridge Company in which they expressed intent to buy 10,000 to 11,000 tons of steel. This steel would be used to build the rest of the complex, as well as a deck over FDR Drive on the headquarters' eastern side. To fit in with the accelerated schedule of construction, the steel would have to be delivered by September. [41] The project also included a four-lane, $2.28 million vehicular tunnel under First Avenue so that traffic could bypass the headquarters when the UN was in session. The tunnel started construction on August 1, 1949. The tunnel involved two years of planning due to its complexity. [46] Property inside Tudor City, just west of the headquarters, was also acquired so that two streets near the UN headquarters could be widened. The expanded streets were expected to speed up construction. [47] In October 1949, contracts were awarded for the construction of two vehicular ramps over the FDR Drive: one to the north of the UN headquarters, and one to the south. [48] Another contract to redevelop 42nd Street, a major corridor leading to the UN headquarters, was awarded in December of that year. [49]

The Secretariat Building was ceremonially topped out in October 1949 after its steel framework had been completed. The UN flag was hoisted atop the roof of the newly completed steel frame in celebration of this event. The installation of the Secretariat Building's interior furnishings proceeded quickly so that the building could be open in January 1951. [50] In February 1950, the UN invited companies from 37 countries to bid on $2 million worth of furniture for the Secretariat Building. [51] A month later, the UN announced that it would also be accepting all donations from private citizens, entities, or organizations. This marked a reversal from their previous policy of rejecting all donations. [34] A $1.7 million steel contract on the United Nations General Assembly building, the last structure to be built, was awarded in April 1950. [52] At the time, the building was not expected to be complete until 1952 due to a steelworkers' strike, which had delayed the production of steel. [53] The first pieces of the platform over the FDR Drive was lifted into place the same month. [54] In June 1950, Norway proposed that it decorate and outfit the complex's Security Council chamber, and the UN unofficially accepted the Norwegian offer. [55]

In December 1949, Robert Moses proposed placing a playground inside the UN headquarters, [56] but this plan was initially rejected. [57] The UN subsequently reversed its position in April 1951, and Lie agreed to build a 100-by-140-foot (30 by 43 m) playground at the northeast corner of the headquarters site. [58] However, the UN did reject an unusual "model playground" proposal for that site, instead choosing to construct a play area similar to others found around New York City. [59]

Opening Edit

The first 450 UN employees started working at the Secretariat Building on August 22, 1950. [60] The United Nations officially moved into the Secretariat Building on January 8, 1951, by which time 3,300 employees occupied the building. [61] At the time, much of the Secretariat Building was still unfinished, and the bulk of the UN's operations still remained at Lake Success. [62] A centralized phone-communications system was built to facilitate communications within the complex. [63] The UN had completely moved out of its Lake Success headquarters by May. [64] The construction of the General Assembly Building was delayed due to a shortage of limestone for the building, which in turn resulted from a heavy snow at the British limestone quarries that were supplying the building's Portland limestone. [65] The erection of the building's framework began in February 1952. [66] The Manhattan headquarters was declared complete on October 10, 1952. [2] The cost of construction was reported to be on budget at $65 million. [67] In 1953, twenty-one nations donated furnishings or offered to decorate the UN headquarters. [68]

A new library building for the UN headquarters was proposed in 1952. [69] The existing UN library, a 6-story structure formerly owned by the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA), was too small. The NYCHA building could only hold 170,000 books, whereas the UN wanted to host at least 350,000 to 400,000 books in its library. The new facility was slated to cost $3 million. [70] By 1955, the collection was housed in the Secretariat Building and held 250,000 volumes in "every language of the world", according to The New York Times. [71] The Dag Hammarskjöld Library Building, designed by Harrison and Abramovitz, was officially dedicated in November 1961. [72]

Early years Edit

The gardens at the United Nations headquarters were originally closed to the public, but were made publicly accessible in 1958. [73] By 1962, the United Nations' operations had grown so much that the headquarters could not house all of the organization's operations. As a result, the UN announced its intention to rent office space nearby. [74] The Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) moved to leased office space in 2 United Nations Plaza three years later. [75] The East River-Turtle Bay Fund, a civic group, proposed that the United Nations purchase a 3-acre (1.2 ha) tract located to the south of the headquarters, on the site of the Robert Moses Playground and the Queens–Midtown Tunnel ventilation building between 41st and 42nd Streets. [76] The northern portion of the United Nations site remained largely undeveloped through the mid-1960s a proposed skyscraper by Wallace K. Harrison was scrapped after the UN ran out of money and had to borrow $65 million from the United States government. [77]

A radical proposal for redeveloping the area around the UN headquarters was proposed in 1968. It entailed closing First Avenue between 43rd and 45th Streets constructing a new visitor's center with two 44-story towers between 43rd and 45th Streets and connecting the new visitor's center with the existing headquarters via a public park. [78] This plan was presented to the New York City government in 1969, but was ultimately not acted upon. [79]

The UN staff continued to grow, and by 1969, the organization had 3,500 staff working in the New York headquarters. The UN rented additional space at 485 Lexington Avenue and in the Chrysler East complex, located three blocks west of the headquarters. It also announced its intention to build a new storage building between 41st and 42nd Streets. None of these properties would receive the extraterritorial status conferred on the original headquarters. [80]

Refurbishment Edit

On July 28, 2007, UN officials announced the complex would undergo a $1 billion renovation starting in the fall. Swedish firm Skanska AB won a bid to overhaul the buildings which including the Conference, General Assembly and Secretariat buildings. The renovations, which were the first since the complex opened in 1950, were expected to take about 7 years to complete. When completed the complex is also expected to be more energy efficient and have improved security. [81] A temporary $140 million "North Lawn Building" was built to house the United Nations' "critical operations" while renovations proceeded. [82] Work began on May 5, 2008, but the project was delayed for a while. [83] By 2009 the cost of the work had risen from $1.2 billion to $1.6 billion with some estimates saying it would take up to $3 billion. [84] Officials hoped the renovated buildings would achieve a LEED Silver rating. Despite some delays and rises in construction costs, renovation on the entire UN headquarters progressed rapidly. By 2012, the installation of the new glass facade of the Secretariat Building was completed. The new glass wall retained the look of the original facade but it is more energy efficient. The renovation of the Secretariat building was completed, and the UN staff moved into the new building in July 2012. [85] [86]

Alternative sites were considered as temporary holding locations during renovations. In 2005, officials investigated establishing a new temporary site be created at the old Lake Success location. Brooklyn was also suggested as a temporary site. [87] Another alternative for a temporary headquarters or a new permanent facility was the World Trade Center site. [88] Once again, these plans met resistance both within the UN and from the United States and New York governments and were abandoned. [89]

By September 2015, the renovations were nearly complete but the cost had risen to $2.15 billion. [90] Demolition of the North Lawn Building began in January 2016. The building was replaced with an open plaza, and most of its materials were to be recycled. [82]

On March 10, 2020, the UN closed to general public following due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [91] It was later announced that the pandemic also forced cuts to staff at the building. [92]

The UN identifies Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish as its six official languages. Delegates speaking in any of these languages will have their words simultaneously interpreted into all of the others, and attendees are provided with headphones through which they can hear the interpretations. A delegate is allowed to make a statement in a non-official language, but must provide either an interpreter or a written copy of his/her remarks translated into an official language. [93]

Extraterritoriality and security Edit

The site of the UN headquarters has extraterritoriality status. [94] This affects some law enforcement where UN rules override the laws of New York City, but it does not give immunity to those who commit crimes there. In addition, the United Nations Headquarters remains under the jurisdiction and laws of the United States, although a few members of the UN staff have diplomatic immunity and so cannot be prosecuted by local courts unless the diplomatic immunity is waived by the Secretary-General. In 2005, Secretary-General Kofi Annan waived the immunity of Benon Sevan, Aleksandr Yakovlev, and Vladimir Kuznetsov in relation to the Oil-for-Food Programme, [95] and all were charged in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Benon Sevan later fled the United States to Cyprus, while Aleksandr Yakovlev and Vladimir Kuznetsov decided to stand trial. [96]

United Nations Security officers are generally responsible for security within the UN Headquarters. They are equipped with weapons and handcuffs and are sometimes mistaken for NYPD officers due to the agencies' similar uniforms. [97] The NYPD's 17th Precinct patrols the area around and near the complex, but may only formally enter the actual UN headquarters at the request of the Secretary-General. [98]

Journalists reporting from the complex often use "United Nations" rather than "New York City" as the identification of their location in recognition of the extraterritoriality status. [99]

Currency and postage Edit

The currency in use at the United Nations headquarters' businesses is the U.S. dollar. The UN's stamps are issued in denominations of the U.S. dollar. [100]

The complex has a street address of United Nations Headquarters, New York, NY, 10017, United States. For security reasons, all mail sent to this address is sterilized, so items that may be degraded can be sent by courier. [101] The United Nations Postal Administration issues stamps, which must be used on stamped mail sent from the building. [102]

Radio Edit

For award purposes, amateur radio operators consider the UN headquarters a separate "entity" under some award programs such as DXCC. For communications, UN organizations have their own internationally recognized ITU prefix, 4U. However, only contacts made with the UN Headquarters in New York, and the ITU count as separate entities. Other UN organizations such as the World Bank count for the state or country they are located in. The UN Staff Recreation Council operates amateur radio station 4U1UN. [103]

The complex includes a number of major buildings. While the Secretariat building is most predominantly featured in depictions of the headquarters, it also includes the domed General Assembly building, the Dag Hammarskjöld Library, as well as the Conference and Visitors Center, which is situated between the General Assembly and Secretariat buildings, and can be seen only from the FDR Drive or the East River. Just inside the perimeter fence of the complex stands a line of flagpoles where the flags of all 193 UN member states, 2 observer states, plus the UN flag, are flown in English alphabetical order. [104]

General Assembly Building Edit

The General Assembly Building, housing the United Nations General Assembly, holds the General Assembly Hall, which has a seating capacity of 1,800. At 165 ft (50 m) long by 115 ft (35 m) wide, it is the largest room in the complex. [12]

The Hall has two murals by the French artist Fernand Léger. At the front of the chamber is the rostrum containing the green marble [105] desk for the President of the General Assembly, Secretary-General and Under-Secretary-General for General Assembly Affairs and Conference Services and matching lectern for speakers. [12] Behind the rostrum is the UN emblem on a gold background. [106] Flanking the rostrum is a paneled semi-circular wall that tapers as it nears the ceiling and surrounds the front portion of the chamber. In front of the paneled walls are seating areas for guests and within the wall are windows which allow interpreters to watch the proceedings as they work. The ceiling of the hall is 75 ft (23 m) high and surmounted by a shallow dome ringed by recessed light fixtures. The entrance to the hall bears an inscription from the Gulistan by Iranian poet Saadi. [107]

Original plans called for the back wall of the General Assembly Hall, behind the rostrum, to be adorned with the seals of the sixty countries that were part of the UN in 1952. Though fifty-four seals were eventually completed, these plans were scrapped in 1955 because Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld felt they would distract from the purpose of the room. [108] The General Assembly Hall was last altered in 1980 when capacity was increased to accommodate the increased membership. Each of the 192 delegations has six seats in the hall with three at a desk and three alternate seats behind them. [12]

Conference Building Edit

The Conference Building faces the East River between the General Assembly Building and the Secretariat. The Conference Building holds the Security Council Chamber, which was a gift from Norway and was designed by the Norwegian architect Arnstein Arneberg. The oil canvas mural depicting a phoenix rising from its ashes by Norwegian artist Per Krogh hangs at the front of the room. [109]

The second floor of the building houses the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) chamber, which was a gift from Sweden. It was designed by Sven Markelius and was renovated in 2013. [110] This renovation added a set of curtains named "Dialogos" by Ann Edholm. [111]

Secretariat Building Edit

The 39-story Secretariat Building was completed in 1950. [112] It houses offices for the Secretary General, the Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs and United Nations Legal Counsel, [113] the Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs and Office of Disarmament Affairs, [114] and the Department for General Assembly and Conference Management (DGACM). [115]

Dag Hammarskjöld Library Edit

The library was founded with the United Nations in 1946. It was originally called the United Nations Library, later the United Nations International Library. In the late 1950s the Ford Foundation gave a grant to the United Nations for the construction of a new library building Dag Hammarskjöld was also instrumental in securing the funding for the new building. The Dag Hammarskjöld Library was dedicated and renamed on November 16, 1961. [72] The building was a gift from the Ford Foundation and is located next to the Secretariat at the southwest corner of the headquarters campus. The library holds 400,000 books, 9,800 newspapers and periodical titles, 80,000 maps, and the Woodrow Wilson Collection containing 8,600 volumes of League of Nations documents and 6,500 related books and pamphlets. The library's Economic and Social Affairs Collection is housed in the DC-2 building. [116]

Other buildings Edit

While outside of the complex, the headquarters also includes two large office buildings that serve as offices for the agencies and programmes of the organization. These buildings, known as DC-1 and DC-2, are located at 1 and 2 UN Plaza respectively. DC1 was built in 1976. There is also an identification office at the corner of 46th Street, inside a former bank branch, where pre-accredited diplomats, reporters, and others receive their grounds passes. UNICEF House (3 UN Plaza) and the UNITAR Building (807 UN Plaza) are also part of headquarters. In addition, the Church Center for the United Nations (777 UN Plaza) is a private building owned by the United Methodist Church as an interfaith space housing the offices of several non-governmental organizations. The Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) is located at 380 Madison Avenue. [117]

Proposed tower Edit

In October 2011 city and state officials announced an agreement in which the UN would be allowed to build a long-sought new office tower just south of the existing campus on the current Robert Moses Playground, which would be relocated. [118] In exchange, the United Nations would allow the construction of an esplanade along the East River that would complete the East River Greenway, a waterfront pedestrian and bicycle pathway. [119] While host nation authorities have agreed to the provisions of the plan, it needs the approval of the United Nations in order to be implemented. The plan is similar in concept to an earlier proposal that had been announced in 2000 but did not move forward. [120]

The complex contains gardens, which were originally private gardens before being opened to the public in 1958. [73] The complex is notable for its gardens and outdoor sculptures. Iconic sculptures include the "Knotted Gun", called Non-Violence, a statue of a Colt Python revolver with its barrel tied in a knot, which was a gift from the Luxembourg government [121] and Let Us Beat Swords into Plowshares, a gift from the Soviet Union. [122] The latter sculpture is the only appearance of the "swords into plowshares" quotation, from Isaiah 2:4, within the complex. Contrary to popular belief, the quotation is not carved on any UN building. [123] Rather, it is carved on the "Isaiah Wall" of Ralph Bunche Park across First Avenue. A piece of the Berlin Wall also stands in the UN garden. [124]

Other prominent artworks on the grounds include Peace - a Marc Chagall stained glass window memorializing the death of Dag Hammarskjöld - [125] the Japanese Peace Bell which is rung on the vernal equinox and the opening of each General Assembly session, [126] a Chinese ivory carving made in 1974 (before the ivory trade was largely banned in 1989), [127] and a Venetian mosaic depicting Norman Rockwell's painting The Golden Rule. [128] A full-size tapestry copy of Pablo Picasso's Guernica, by Jacqueline de la Baume Dürrbach, is on the wall of the United Nations building at the entrance to the Security Council room. [129] [130] In 1952, two Fernand Léger murals were installed in the General Assembly Hall. The works are meant to merely be decorative with no symbolism. One is said to resemble cartoon character Bugs Bunny and U.S. President Harry S. Truman dubbed the other work "Scrambled Eggs". [131]

Two large murals by Brazilian artist Cândido Portinari, entitled Guerra e Paz (War and Peace) are located at the delegates hall. The works are a gift from the United Nations Association of the United States of America and Portinari intended to execute them in the United States. However, he was denied a visa due to his communist convictions and decided to paint them in Rio de Janeiro. They were later assembled in the headquarters. After their completion in 1957, Portinari, who was already ill when he started the masterpiece, succumbed to lead poisoning from the pigments his doctors advised him to abandon. [132]

Due to the significance of the organization, proposals to relocate its headquarters have occasionally been made. Complainants about its current location include diplomats who find it difficult to obtain visas from the United States [133] and local residents complaining of inconveniences whenever the surrounding roads are closed due to visiting dignitaries, as well as the high costs to the city. [134] A US telephone survey in 2001 found that 67% of respondents favored moving the United Nations headquarters out of the country. [135] Countries critical of the US, such as Iran and Russia, are especially vocal in questioning the current location of the United Nations, arguing that the United States government could manipulate the work of the General Assembly through selective access to politicians from other countries, with the aim of having an advantage over rival countries. [136] [137] In the wake of the Snowden global surveillance disclosures, the subject of the relocation of the UN headquarters was again discussed, this time for security reasons. [138]

Among the cities that have been proposed to house the headquarters of the United Nations are Saint Petersburg, [139] Montreal, [140] Dubai, [141] [142] Jerusalem, [143] and Nairobi. [134]

Critics of relocation say that the idea would be expensive and would also involve the withdrawal of the United States from the organization, and with it much of the agency's funding. They also state that the proposals have never gone from being mere declarations. [144]

Large scale protests, demonstrations, and other gatherings directly on First Avenue are rare. Some gatherings have taken place in Ralph Bunche Park, but it is too small to accommodate large demonstrations. The closest location where the New York City Police Department usually allows demonstrators is Dag Hammarskjöld Plaza at 47th Street and First Avenue. [145]

Excluding gatherings solely for diplomats and academics, there are a few organizations that regularly hold events at the UN. The United Nations Association of the United States of America (UNA-USA), a non-governmental organization, holds an annual "member's day" event in one of the conference rooms. Model United Nations conferences sponsored by UNA-USA, the National Collegiate Conference Association (NCCA/NMUN), and the International Model UN Association (IMUNA/NHSMUN) hold part of their sessions in the General Assembly chamber. Seton Hall University's Whitehead School of Diplomacy hosts its UN summer study program at the headquarters as well. [146]

Due to its role in international politics, the United Nations headquarters is often featured in movies and other pop culture. The only two films actually shot on location in the UN headquarters are The Glass Wall (1953) by Hollywood writer/director/producer Ivan Tors and The Interpreter (2005) by director Sydney Pollack. [ non-primary source needed ] When he was unable to obtain permission to film in the UN Headquarters, director Alfred Hitchcock covertly filmed Cary Grant arriving for the 1959 feature North by Northwest. After the action within the building, another scene shows Grant leaving across the plaza looking down from the building's roof. This was created using a painting. [147] In the 1976 comedy film The Pink Panther Strikes Again, the building is vaporized by Dreyfus with a doomsday device. [ non-primary source needed ]

Notes Edit

Citations Edit

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Other sources Edit

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Archibald Robertson, lieutenant-general, Royal Engineers.1745-1813 From: his diaries and sketches in America, 1762-1780.

Archibald Robertson‘s Diaries and Sketches are an extraordinary eye-witness account of the Revolutionary War. He had accompanied Gen. Howe for most of the engagements from 1776 to 1778, and upon arriving at New York in the summer of 1776, described the landscape and troop movements in and around Staten Island. The following excerpts start with the British fleet approaching Sandy Hook and anchoring off the coast of Staten Island in late June and includes the preparations for what would be the Battle of Long Island in August

Major Archibald Robertson of Lawers 1782 by George Romney The Museum of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg, Florida

[June] 29th at 6 in the morning discovered land the heights call’d the Neversinks close by sandy hook the Entrance into New York Bay, and all the Fleet got safe to an Anchor at 3o’clock behind the Hook. Have had very calm weather for 10 Days past with light Breezes from the East. Dth a fair wind but lay still. Wrote my Brother and nclos’d the 2d of Exchange for £200 Sterling drawn by Captain S: in his favour.

July 1st within 20 Minutes of 5 afternoon the Admiral made the signal to get under way, and in an hour all the Fleet were under sail for the Narrows with a fair wind. Came to an Anchor about 2 miles off Gravesend on Long Island, about 8 o’clock, and went with Captain [John] M[ontreso]r immediately on board the Admiral. There was orders for the troops to be ready to embark at 4 next morning, but after a long Consultation of General Officers it was agreed not to be proper, considering the country we had to march thro’ and the Difficulty of keeping up our Communication with the Ships, etc., etc.

[July] 2nd Weigh’d Anchor at 10 morning and stood for the Narrows, the Tide just on the turn against us and a light Breeze. At 11 The tide turn’d and becoming allmost Calm and the wind ahead the Transports fell into great Confusion all dropping upon one another without steerage way which obliged us to come to an Anchor. Some of the ships with in 7 or 800 Yards of Long Island. We observed a good many of the Rebels in Motion on shore. They fired musquetry at the nearest Ships without effect. About 12 the ships nearest were ordered to drop down with the Tide, lucky for us the Rebels had no Cannon here or we must have suffered a good deal.

The Phoenix, Grayhound and Rose men of war got about 4 or 5 miles ahead and brought too. About 4 past one the Phoenix made the signal for preparing to land. It rain’d smartly, and the ist division of Transports got under way with the first of the flood Tide, and about 9 we got up to the Watering Place on Staaten Island where the 3 men of war had hauled close inshore, the General on board the Greyhound, and the Grenadiers and Light Infantry under Earl Percy. Generals Robertson and Leslie landed immediately without opposition, the inhabitants wellcoming them ashore. They lay near the landing Place all night.

July 4th Last night the Rebels brought two pieces of Cannon to Deckers’s Ferry, one 12 and one 9 pounder, and Early in the morng fired on the George Sloop and kill’d and wounded 5 men, but the sloop drove them off with the loss of one man and some wounded. The General would not allow the Grass hoppers to be fired. This day we brought up 2 12 -pounders and 2 Royal Howitzers near Deckers Ferry. The Rebels fired from a field piece at our Transports coming up the Narrows. The Asia return’d the fire and drove them off. All the troops landed. This night a Sloop came in from Shrewsberry in the Jerseys with 66 men in Arms to join the Army under Mr. Morris formerly an Officer in the 47th Regiment. Landed the entrenching tools with the Cannon.

The Emerald Arrived with a Ship loaded with Provisions from the Loyalists at New York. Several People came in, in Boats from Long Island and the town, most horridly persecuted by the Rebels.

[July] 5th nothing Extraordinary but reconnoitring the Enemy’s works they began to throw up opposite Elizabeth- town Ferry the 3d, which we found very slight and ill constructed. This day pitch’d my tent. A party of 50 Sailors of the Asia brought off some Cattle from the point at the Kills.

6th reconnoitered our post at Richmond, the Quarters of the Grenadiers. Staid all night, saw the Militia review’d, supposed to be 700 and a troop of light Horse.

7th return’d to head Quarters. The Rebels last Evening fired a good many Musquet shot across the water at Decker’s Ferry without Effect. Some People come in from long Island and 3 Rifflemen with 5 Riffle Guns, an English, Scotch and Irishman.

The Militia mounted a Guard on the General of 12 Light Horse.

8th Wrote to Lord Townsend, Lord Cathcart, and Henry, to go by the same Pacquet with my letter of 30th Ultmo. This Evening the Rebels fired musquetry at Decker’s Ferry, but dispersed on a gun or two being fired.

9th This morning at 5 we had a working Party of 100 men to cut Fascines at Deckers Ferry to begin a Post which we marked out there for the security of the inhabitants when we leave this Island. This afternoon went to Richmond with Mr. Sproul, to mark out an intended work upon a height near the Town.

10th After looking over and Considering the ground well found some Alterations in the scheme would be necessary. Return’d to Head Quarters. I believe no work is to be made at Richmond.

13th the 1st and 5th Brigades embarked, the Grenadiers took the Quarters of the 1st from Richmond, and the Forreigners encamp’d where the 5th were.

18th this morning the Phoenix and Rose men of war with two tenders came down to the Fleet after having pass’d the fire of all their Batterys in which the Rose had two men wounded. The Night of the 16th they were attack’ d by two fire Ships, the Rose’s Tender was burnt and the Phoenix narrowly escaped.

22nd Landed on Long Island Gravesend Bay.

26th Ordered to attend General Clinton, I join’d him at 8 in the Evening at flatlands, at 9 we march’d, with all the Grenadiers, Light Infantry, 33d, 71st Regiments and 17th Light dragoons in order to turn the left flank of the Rebel army who were in possession of the high Grounds of Brooklyn, that extend all the way most to Jamaica.

27th at daybreak we pass’d these heights without any op position, about 5 miles East of Bedford and continued our march towards Bedford and Brooklyn. When we came near to Bedford the Rebels began to fire from the Woods on our left which continued for some distance as we march’d on to Brooklyn. Ordered to stop the Light Companies of the 23d I join’d them and obliged to remain, my Communication with the General being cut off. About 9 o’clock the Rebels gave way very fast and in their retreat, across a marsh and mill dam, received a heavy fire from our Grenadiers tho’ distant. The Light Horse could not act for a swamp that was in front. At the same time General Clinton went from Flatlands. General Grant march’d from Dinnys’s with 2 Brigades to turn the Rebels right Flank and Count Dunhop march’d in the Centre from Flat Bush. General Grant in his march had several smart Skirmishes. A Battalion of our Grenadiers and the 71st were sent on towards General Grant and about 2 in the Afternoon they had a very smart Skirmish in the woods with the Rebels who were trying to get to the water side to escape. The Hessians likewise fell in with the flying Partys and they were drove from every Quarter. We lost some Good Officers, about 60 men kill’d and about 300 wounded, the Rebel loss was very considerable upwards of 3000 kill’d wounded and Prisoners. Amongst the latter General Sulivan and Lord Stirling. They had about 12,000 men on the heights. Great Numbers got across the creek into their Works on Brooklyn heights, we were in Possession of very good Ground within 600 Yards of them, and by some mistake in orders had very near Evacuated this ground. In the evening we retired a little. The whole of this days Manoeuvre was well plann’d and Executed, only more of the Rebels might have been cut off had we push’d on from Brooklyn sooner towards General Grant.

[August] 28th this night with a party of 400 men I opened ground opposite their Works and form’d a kind of Paralel or place of Arms 650 Yards Distant. This day Sir William Erskine with the 71st Regiment and Light Dragoons went to Jamaica, they took a General Woodall Prisoner.

29th Party 300 employ’d in making a Boyau and Party employ’d in making fascines to raise Batterys.

30th perceived by Day Break that the Rebels had evacuated all their works on long Island and retreated to New York Island in the night. We immediately took Possession of them with the Piquets, and in the Evening were relieved by 100 Hessians. General Clinton went On towards Newton with 2 Battalions Light Infantry and 1 Battalion Hessian Grenadiers.

31st All the Army began to move towards Newton but5000 Hessians under General Heister left at Brooklyn heights, 2 Brigades with General Grant at Bedford. General Clinton was this morning at Hell Gate and Lord Cornwallis encamp’d on the heights near Newton. At 2 o’clock the General with the rest of the Army Arrived at Newton which was head Quarters. We pass’d through a Pleasant Country.Reported that the Rebels were firing on one Another and evacuating the Town.

September 1st reconnoitred the shore opposite Hell gate where the Rebels have a Work round Walton’s house, call’d Horn Hook, the water or East River about 500 Yards across here. General Sulivan sent over to New York about negociations.

2nd sent early to General Clinton about placing mortars to drive the Rebels from their work at Walton’s house. Nothing done. Reported General Sulivan is gone to Philadelphia.

3d this Night the Rose man of war came up the East River with 20 flat Boats. She Anchored under Blackwells Island. Received Several Shot in coming past the Batterys. A Picquet sent
to take Possession of Blackwells Island for her Protection.4th Evening Captain Moncrief and I were ordered to raise two Batterys at Hell gate against Walton’s House, one of 3 24-Pounders and one 3 12-Pounders, a working party of 300men. We began to work at l/2 past nine and by 5 next morning
they were completed within 2 hours work of 60 men. This Evening a Party was sent to raise a Breast Work on Blackwell’s Island, but the Piquets were withdrawn and the Rose went down to Bush wick Point.
All Entries quoted from: Robertson, Archibald. 1971. Archibald Robertson: his diaries and sketches in America, 1762-1780. [New York]: New York Public Library.

General Orders Head Quarters,TO THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESSHead Quarters, Head Quarters, New York, June 20, 1776 - History

[Note: The following General Orders, issued to the Continental army at New York abut three weeks before the Battle of Long Island and known as Washington's order on profanity, is adapted from The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series.* Image of handwritten document,

ammem_71Ee:: courtesy Library of Congress.]

That the Troops may have an opportunity of attending public worship, as well as take some rest after the great fatigue they have gone through The General in future excuses them from fatigue duty on Sundays (except at the Ship Yards, or special occasions) until further orders.[1] The General is sorry to be informed that the foolish, and wicked practice, of profane cursing and swearing (a Vice heretofore little known in an American Army) is growing into fashion he hopes the officers will, by example, as well as influence, endeavour to check it, and that both they, and the men will reflect, that we can have little hopes of the blessing of Heaven on our Arms, if we insult it by our impiety, and folly added to this, it is a vice so mean and low, without any temptation, that every man of sense, and character, detests and despises it.

Clarkson and Chase under confinement for Desertion, and reinlistment into the Artillery, from another Corps, to return to Capt: Bauman's Company until Col. Ellmores Regiment, wh. claims them, comes into camp.

*Letter transcribed in Philander D. Chase, ed., The Papers of George Washington: Revolutionary War Series, vol. 5, June - August 1776, (Charlottesville and London: University Press of Virginia, 1993), 551-52.

Letter held at the Library of Congress. Images courtesy the Library of Congress.

Perhaps. but I view the Almighty as being superior to humanity and thus preferring mercy over malice.

Considering that the Good Lord has all eternity to punish the unrighteous, I can't imagine he'd be in any hurry to usher Patton out of the mortal realm when the man could have just as soon come to penitence and been Saved.

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